Road Ecology: Science and Solutions

Front Cover
Richard T.T. Forman
Island Press, 2003 - Architecture - 481 pages
1 Review

A central goal of transportation is the delivery of safe and efficient services with minimal environmental impact. In practice, though, human mobility has flourished while nature has suffered. Awareness of the environmental impacts of roads is increasing, yet information remains scarce for those interested in studying, understanding, or minimizing the ecological effects of roads and vehicles.

Road Ecology addresses that shortcoming by elevating previously localized and fragmented knowledge into a broad and inclusive framework for understanding and developing solutions. The book brings together fourteen leading ecologists and transportation experts to articulate state-of-the-science road ecology principles, and presents specific examples that demonstrate the application of those principles. Diverse theories, concepts, and models in the new field of road ecology are integrated to establish a coherent framework for transportation policy, planning, and projects. Topics examined include: •foundations of road ecology •roads, vehicles, and transportation planning •vegetation and roadsides •wildlife populations and mitigation •water, sediment, and chemical flows •aquatic ecosystems •wind, noise, and atmospheric effects •road networks and landscape fragmentation
Road Ecology links ecological theories and concepts with transportation planning, engineering, and travel behavior. With more than 100 illustrations and examples from around the world, it is an indispensable and pioneering work for anyone involved with transportation, including practitioners and planners in state and province transportation departments, federal agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. The book also opens up an important new research frontier for ecologists.

  

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Contents

Foundations of Road Ecology
3
What ls Road Ecology?
7
Earth Fill and Soil
9
Introducing Ecological Concepts
12
The Roots and Emergence of Road Ecology
16
Roads
25
History of the US Road System
27
The Canadian Road System
33
Sources of Chemical Pollutants
202
Chemicals and Their Dispersion
207
Types of Ecological Effects
211
Roadsalt
213
Best Management Practices for Pollutant Mitigation and Source Control
219
Aquatic Ecosystems
225
Habitat Structure Connectivity and Roads
226
Lakes
230

Size Growth and Pattern of the US Road Network
39
Roadsides Bridges and Other Engineering Structures
43
Vehicles and Planning
49
Automobility and lts Challenges
50
Vehicle Size FueL and Technology Trends
55
The Planning and Project Development Process
57
Transportation Planning and Air Quality Models
63
Project Development the Environment and NEPA
65
Roadsides and Vegetation
75
Reading the Roadside
76
Vegetation
83
Plants
86
Roadside Habitats and Animals
95
Roadside Management
99
Wildlife Populations
113
Wildlife Mortality on Roads
114
Factors Affecting Mortality
120
Changes in Amount and Quality of Habitat
123
Effects on Landscape Connectivity
129
Cumulative Effects and Road Density
134
Mitigation for Wildlife
139
Mitigation for Mortality Habitat Loss and Reduced Habitat Quality
140
Types of Wildlife Underpasses and Overpasses
147
Factors Affecting the Use of Wildlife Passages
151
Wildlife Passages Summary and Effectiveness
156
Mitigation Case Studies
165
Water and Sediment Flows
171
Erosion and Sediment Control
172
Reciprocal Effect of Road Systems and Water
177
A Conceptual Framework for Roads and Water Flow
180
Roads and Water on Hillsides and Flat Lands
185
Road Types Land Use and Water
195
Chemicals along Roads
201
Wetlands
238
Streams Rivers Bridges and Culverts
244
Estuarine Salt Marshes
249
Wind and Atmospheric Effects
253
Microclimate Wind and Windbreaks
254
Dust and Erosion
260
Snow and Snowbreaks
265
Vehicle Disturbance and Traffic Noise
270
Atmospheric Effects at Local Regional and Global Scales
279
Road Systems Linked with the Land
291
Network Theory for Road Ecology
294
Spatial Attributes of Road Networks
297
Changing Road Networks
302
Road System Effects on the Surrounding Land
306
Effects of Surrounding Land on Road Systems
316
The Four Landscapes with Major Road Systems
319
Built Land and Road Systems
320
Forestry Land and Road Systems
333
Agricultural Land and Road Systems
341
Grazing Land Arid Land and Road Systems
346
Roads and Vehicles in Natural Landscapes
351
Remote Land Roads and Vehicles
352
Parkland Roads and Vehicles
355
The Arctic and Its Roads and Vehicles
360
The Tropics and Its Roads and Vehicles
368
Further Perspectives
375
Road Ecology and Sustainability
376
Toward Policy and Planning Solutions
379
An Array of Perspectives for Future Policy Planning and Projects
387
Whither Road Ecology?
397
Bibliography
401
Copyright

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About the author (2003)

Richard T. T. Forman is the PAES Professor of Landscape Ecology at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design School; among his books is the award-winning Land Mosaics (Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Daniel Sperling is Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy, and founding director of the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Davis.

Adjunct Associate Professor of Landscape Ecology, Harvard University, Graduate School of Design

The twelve co-authors are: John A. Bissonette (Utah State University); Anthony P. Clevenger (Banff National Park); Carol D. Cutshall (Wisconsin Department of Transportation); Virginia H. Dale (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Lenore Fahrig (Carleton University); Robert France (Harvard University); Charles R. Goldman (University of California-Davis); Kevin Heanue (formerly U. S. Federal Highway Administration); Julia A. Jones (Oregon State University); Frederick J. Swanson (USDA Forest Service); Thomas Turrentine (University of California-Davis); and Thomas C. Winter (U. S. Geological Survey).