and fire-brick, which had come to be one of the most prominent of Albany's industries, and in 1841, in partnership-with Jacob Henry, he embarked in the business on the south side of Hudson avenue, between Eagle and High streets, investing as his share of the capital $4,coo, which he had up to that time been able to save from the proceeds of his former enterprises. The establishment was destroyed by fire two years later, and Mr. Van Allen sustained a considerable loss; but, nothing daunted, the firm purchased ground on Hawk street and Hudson avenue, extending back to Jay street, on which they erected suitable buildings and appliances, and resumed the manufacture of fire brick and stoneware on a still greater scale. This business was continued with success until 1848, when failing health compelled Mr. Van Allen to relinquish it, and Messrs. Van Allen & Henry sold it to John Gott & Amos P. Palmer.

Mr. Van Allen soon after removed, with his family, to a farm of two hundred acres which he had purchased in Bethlehem, known as the homestead farm of Solomon Luke. With improved health he returned to Albany in 1850, to be thereafter a permanent resident, and to still more closely identify himself with several of the city's most prominent interests. In connection with his former partner, Jacob Henry, he purchased a two-thirds interest in the old fire-brick establishment, the entire ownership of which had previously passed to Amos P. Palmer; and during the next four years the business was conducted by Messrs. Van Allen, Henry & Palmer, until the admission to the firm of Horace B. Newton, after which the four were partners, until, at the expiration of the period mentioned, Mr. Van Allen disposed of his interest to Messrs. Henry, Palmer & Newton. In 1854 he engaged in the wholesale lumber trade in the Lumber District, which he continued successfully, doing an average annual business of $300,000 to $350,000, until the financial crisis of 1857 prostrated the lumber trade in common with most other interests, and rendered Mr. Van Allen's relinquishment of his share in it advisable.

Meantime, Mr. Van Allen had become prominent in connection with commercial institutions in the city. Upon the organization of the Bank of the Capitol in 1844, he was chosen one of its Directors. As such he continued until, in 1857, he was appointed Cashier of the Union Bank. In 1861 he resigned as Director and Cashier of the Union Bank, and was elected Cashier of the Bank of Albany. On assuming his new duties, he discovered large defalcations, which had been perpetrated by his prececessor in office, which involved the loss of the bank's capital and necess'tated the closing of its doors and the appointment of a receiver to wind up its affairs. By the unanimous request of the stockholders, Mr. Van Allen accepted the appointment of receiver. On the first of the following September, he was appointed Cashier of the Albany Exchange Bank, but declined to accept the position. In October, 1861, he was made Cashier of the National Exchange Bank. As he had done upon entering upon his duties as Cashier

of the Bank of Albany, he discovered evidences of serious defalcations and unwise management of the affairs of this institution, which had caused the loss of its surplus and fully one-half of its capital. With the assent of the stockholders, Mr. Van Allen secured the reduction of its capital stock from $400,000 to $200,oco, and so managed its affairs that it was enabled to continue business and retain the public confidence. Upon the organization of the First National Bank in 1864, he was chosen its Cashier, and resigned his connection with the Merchants' Bank to accept the position, which he held until he was made President of the institution in 1883. At the organization of the National Savings Bank in 1868, he was chosen its Vice-President. As far back as 1854, he was elected a Director of the Schuyler Line, and in 1864 he was chosen Director of the Albany Gaslight Company, and became its President in 1882. With Mr. Silas B. Hamilton, he was prominent in the organization of the Commerce Insurance Company in 1859; m i860 he was elected its VicePresident; and at Mr. Hamilton's death, in 1861, he succeeded to the Presidency and retained the position during the balance of his life.

In earlv life, Mr. Van Allen was a Whig of the school of Clay and Webster, and his first vote was cast in 1834 for Hon. William H. Seward for Governor. In 1836 he voted for William H. Harrison for President. Subsequently he adopted the anti-slavery idea, as advocated by Mr. Seward, and was one of the first and firmest supporters of the principles of the Republican party. Though never an aspirant for political preferment, he was repeatedly chosen to places of public trust under the Municipal, County and State governments. In 1838 he was elected Inspctor of Schools in the old First Ward, and was several times re-elected. He was Supervisor of his Ward in 1847, 1848 and 1850. In 1856 he represented the Second District in the Assembly. The following year he was elected Treasurer of Albany County and held that position three years. In 1862, and again in 1882, he received the Republican nomination to the Mayoralty, but disliking political life and being engaged in other pusuits more congenial to his tastes and habits, he declined to be a candidate.

In early life, Mr. Van Allen had been familiar with the forms, ceremonies and general features of the Protestant Episcopal Church. When he came to Albany, he became an attendant upon the services of the Second Reformed Church. He united with it in 1836, and was soon chosen one of its Elders. In 1848 he was chosen one of its Trustees, and as such served much of the time as President of the Board for more than thirty years. In 1850 he became Superintendent of its Sunday School, and continued in the office during nine consecutive years. In 1880, he became a member of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, and his connection with it was terminated only by his death. In his relations with both of the churches named, he was ever zealous, liberal, kind and helpful.

February 18, 1834, Mr. Van Allen was married to Miss Eleanor Slingerland, daughter of Teunis Slingerland, of Onesquethau, in the town of New Scotland.

To Mr. and Mrs. Van Allen were born ten children, named Garret A., William H., Adam, Jr., Charles H., Magdalen, Anna M., Helen, Cornelia, Christiana and Ella. Four of the daughters are dead, the four sons and Misses Christiana and Ella, with their mother, surviving. The family home, No. 40 Lancaster street, was built about thirty years ago.

Mr. Van Allen's death was sudden and unexpected, a shock alike to those nearest and dearest to him, and to the large circle of warm personal friends and business associates who had so long known him. A man of high character, unstinted benevolence, steady perseverance, lofty integrity, and business capacity of an unusual order, he was one of the most prominent and progressive citizens of Albany and left his impress on its varied interests, with which he was identified from boyhood. Though his energies were brought to bear chiefly on the field of finance, where his ability and judgment caused him to take high rank, he did not a little toward developing Albany's commercial interests and forwarding her general prosperity. He will long be remembered as one who was instrumental in purifying the financial atmosphere of the city at a time when some of her leading monetary institutions were on the brink of shameful disaster; for he was, above all, honest, and, as a banker, conservative, safe and eminently trustworthy. Courtly in manner, and possessed of fine literary tastes, he was at once an agreeable and an instructive companion; and he reared up a home rich in evidences of his appreciation of the beautiful in art and literature, and of his love for those who shared it with him. Far more beautifully than we could allude to them, are the prominent traits of his character referred to in the following extract from

a sermon preached by Rev. J. Livingston Reese, Pastor of St. Paul's Church, of Albany, Sunday, September 7, 1884:

"Since last we knelt round God's holy table, the loving Lord has taken to himself from our church family one whose honored name will long be cherished by us all, and whose bright, Christian example will long live to speak for that Master he loved and served in life. Gentle in his affections as a child, he was yet firm as a rock to his principles. He ever had the courage of his convictions and never feared to confess them. Though it was in the latter part of his Christian life he connected himself with the Church whose services he attended in his early years, he soon learned the spiritual depths of the Church's liturgy, and its wonderful power in developing and strengthening the character. Loyal as a Christian to his adorable Christ; loyal as a churchman to the forms and usages of his Church; true in his friendships; upright and honorable in his business; he has left to us and his children, as his best legacy, the bright example of one whose religion brought forth fruit, and that fruit the daily doing of his duty both to God and man. His big heart, while resting ever on the love of those who leaned upon him in the endearments of his bright and happy home, was yet ever gathering to itself all that was beautiful and lovable in the world of men and letters. Whatsoever things were true and honest, and pure and lovely, and of good report, these were his companions and his delight. And when we think of his beautiful life ended here, only to enter upon its enlarged sphere of activity and work, where are ever fresh treasures of wisdom and love, we must this day lift the song of praise that nearer the great throne he drinks of the living waters and tastes of the joys which God hath prepared for them that love Him."

MANUFACTURING INTERESTS OF ALBANY.

ALBANY can hardly be called a manufacturing city. Yet taking away the trade engendered by its manufactories, and the commercial progress has not, latterly, been remarkable. Commerce here is now mainly dependent upon the productive industries. Albany has changed from a purely trading to more of a producing district. In the manufactories of the city, with all the complex interchange of labor, wage-money, and products, we find Albany's firmest financial basis.

Albany has many natural advantages which help make up an economical and successful manufacturing district. Its facilities for receiving and sending by river, canal, and railroad are unusually good. Cheapness and expedition, so necessary in these competitive times to profitable business, are thus secured.

In 1820, the domestic manufactories produced carpeting, coverlets, blankets, milled cloths, coarse and superfine flannels, coarse and fine linen; beaver, castor, roram, napt, and wool hats; Leghorn and straw hats; sole, upper, harness, and milled leather; hollow-ware and solid castings of various kinds for machinery and other uses; pot and pearl-ash, whiskey, molasses-rum, ale, cider, and maple-sugar.

Except for family use there were no woolen factories, and there was in the town of Watervliet one cotton factory.

There were seventeen carding machines, as follows: Bethlehem, 3; Coeymans, 2; Westerlo, 2; Berne, 3; Rensselaerville, 3; Guilderland, 1; Watervliet, 3.

The fulling machines numbered sixteen, viz., in Bethlehem, 2; Coeymans, 3; Westerlo, 2; Rensselaerville, 3; Berne, 3; Guilderland, 1; Watervliet, 2.

Grist-mills, thirty-four, viz.: Bethlehem, 6; Coeymans, 4; Westerlo, 4; Rensselaerville, 6; Berne, 5; Guilderland, 2; Watervliet, 7.

Saw-mills, sixty-eight, viz.: Bethlehem, 11; Coeymans, 11; Westerlo, 9; Rensselaerville, 7; Berne, 21; Guilderland, 4; Watervliet, 5.

Tanneries, forty-three, viz.: Bethlehem, 4; Coeymans, 3; Westerlo, 9; Rensselaerville, 9; Berne, 10; Guilderland, 3; Watervliet, 2; Albany, 3.

There were four breweries in the City of Albany, as follows: Boyd & McCulloch, who brewed 3,000 barrels; Robert Dunlop, who brewed 3,000 barrels; Fidler & Co., who brewed 1,500 barrels; and Henry Birrel, who brewed 1,000 barrels; amounting annually to 8,500 barrels; and .four distilleries in the county, as follows: Daniel Hale, Albany, molasses-rum, 36,000 gallons; Roderick Sedgwick, Bethlehem, whiskey, 40,000 gallons; Stephen Willes, Berne, whiskey, 850 gallons; Asa Colvard, Westerlo, whiskey, 11,000 gallons; amounting annually to 87,850 gallons.

There were also four air furnaces for casting hollow-ware, cannon balls, shot, etc., in the city; and a variety of solid castings for machinery were made.

In the eastern district of the county, pitch and white pine; black, white, and rock, or chestnut oak; chestnut and hickory or walnut timber prevailed. Elm was plentifully scattered over the wet lands, and hemlock was often found near the streams. The western district was timbered with hemlock, beech, sugar-maple, black birch, basswood, and white ash. The swamps afforded, mainly, black ash and white or soft maple, and some elm. One peculiarity in the distribution of timber in this district was, that while the eastern sides of the hills abounded with sugar-maple, beech, basswood, and white ash, the ridges and western aspects were covered with a greater proportion of hemlock. Thus an abundance of lumber was supplied.

In the eastern district, the natural growth succeeding the first clearing was nearly the same as the first growth, but in the western, beech, black birch, sugar-maple, white ash, a small quantity of black cherry, and plenty of a species of wild red cherry obtained.

BREWING.

Albany, as it is at the terminus of the canal and the head of navigation on the Hudson River, is well located for any manufacture. The hop and barley districts are near by, and Albany has established a national reputation in malt products. This important industry had its beginning with the infancy of the city, and the beer and ale interest has grown immensely.

In 1661, Arent Van Corlear was engaged in brewing here, and some authorities have it that in 1635, a brewery was located at Rensselaerwyck. In 1695, Ben. C. Corlaer and Albert Ryckman "were authorized and directed to brew, for the use

of the Common Council, three pipes of beer at £10 13s." One of the prominent brewers of the last century was Harme Gansevoort, who died in 1801. His brewery stood at the corner of Maiden lane and Dean street, and was demolished in 1807. As late as 1833, when the dome of Stanwix Hall was raised, the aged Dutchmen of the city compared it to the capacious brew-kettle of old Harme Gansevoort, whose fame was fresh in their memories.

About the beginning of the present century, a Mr. Gill was proud of the fact that he produced 150 barrels of beer yearly. In this city, during the year ending May 1, 1884, there were manufactured 359,203 barrels of malt liquors, an increase over the previous year of 26,409 barrels. The four breweries in Albany in 1820, are named on a near page.

Robert Dunlop was the first brewer in this city known to persons now living. He started a little brewery at the corner of Broadway and Quackenbush street. This was destroyed forty years ago. Andrew Kirk's brewery on Upper Broadway, now occupied by the Fort Orange Brewing Company, dates back to 1838. James K. Carroll is Treasurer of this Company; Edward F. Carroll, Secretary; and D. McDonald, Brewer. The John McKnight Brewery, on Hawk street, has not been used for years, and the premises are now owned and used by Thomas McCredie, maltster. Uri Burt started a small brewery in a dwelling-house at the corner of Colonie and Montgomery streets, having a capacity of about twenty barrels.

Of the old breweries now in use, the Albany Brewing Company is one. It was founded in 1797 by James Boyd, and to this day the Boyd family retain an interest in it. The original building was 24 by 30 feet. Its buildings now cover the block bounded by Arch, Green, South Ferry and Franklin streets, and are of brick, from two to eight stories high, with fine cellars, their capacity being 150,000 barrels of ale and porter annually. Two hundred thousand bushels of malt also are made yearly, and 125 workmen find employment. The Albany Brewing Company is the successor of Coolidge, Pratt & Co. The officers for 1884 were John S. Boyd, President; James H. Pratt, Secretary and Treasurer; J. M. Knapp, Member of the Executive Committee. John S. Boyd is a grandson of the founder of the establishment. Their products are shipped through the New England States and to New York City, in which they have a depot on West street. G. W. Robinson is Brewer of this Company, and T. C Rowe, Superintendent.

The Taylor Brewery was started October 12, 1822. Mr. John Taylor, its founder, erected the present building on South Broadway in 1851 and 1852. Upon the death of Mr. Taylor in 1863, the firm name was changed to John Taylor's Sons. The Messrs. Taylor who now conduct the business are not relatives of the founder. Their product is shipped mostly through New England and New York.

George I. and Theodore M. Amsdell Brothers are brewers of ale and porter. Their father at one time was engaged as a brewer at the Taylor brewery. He -afterwards started a little brewery in the country. The present institution began in 1850, and has increased until the area occupied by them is 354 by 150 feet, on which are six large brick buildings, five and six stories in hight. They employ 150 men and turn out 80, coo barrels of ale and 160,000 bushels of malt annually. W. T. Amsdell is Superintendent of this brewery, G. A. Hargrave is Brewer.

What is now the Fort Orange Brewing Company, was established in 1839 by Mr Goewey. He was succeded by Mr. Kirk. Messrs. Kearney & McQuade; Wilson & Co.; Smythe & Walker, who remained until May, 1882, succeeded in turn, when the present Company was formed. Alexander Gregory, the President of the Company, is an experienced brewer.

The establishment of James K. Carroll and Duncan McDonald, at 900 to 912 Broadway, is two stories, 50 x 120 feet, with an annual capacity of 30,000 barrels. They manufacture India Pale Ale XXX, Amber XX, Cream Ales, Pale XXX, Amber XX, Stock Ales and Porter.

Besides the above breweries are those of T. D. Coleman & Brothers, at 132 to 154 Chestnut street, and Granger's brewery, corner of Church and Fourth avenue, of which George F. Granger is proprietor. Ale is the only malt liquor brewed at these two establishments.

Lager Beer.

The manufacture of Lager Beer in this country is comparatively of recent date. In Albany the Beverwyck Brewery on North Ferry street is the largest. This was started forty years ago by James Quinn, who brewed ale on the same street. In 1866, Terence J. Quinn and Michael N. Nolan formed a partnership, which continued until 1878, the year of Mr. Quinn's death; since then the business has been conducted by Mr. Nolan, the firm name remaining unchanged. The buildings on North Ferry street are first-class. The cost of the Beverwyck Brewery was $350,000, and it is now manufacturing 60,000 barrels of beer and over 50,000 barrels of ale annually. Mr. Nolan is President and Treasurer; Augustus Kampfer, Secretary; M. Schrodt, General Manager; W. Hoffman, Superintendent; and Alexander Hargrave, Brewer.

The Cataract Brewery was established in 1857, between Park avenue, South Swan street and Myrtle avenue, by Frederick Hinckel and A. Schimerer; the former conducting the business until his death, in 1882. His successors are his brother, A. C. Hinckel, who is Business Manager, and his sons, Frederick and Charles A., the latter being Treasurer. About 75 workmen are employed, and the annual output is 35,000 barrels.

The following statement shows the number of barrels of ale and lager beer manufactured in Albany for the years ending April 30, 1883, and

April 30, 1884:

Ale.

1883 236,491 barrels.

1884 263,459"

Increase, 26,968 barrels.

Lager Beer.

188^ 95,743 barrels.

1884 94,475"

Decrease, 1,268 barrels.

MALTSTERS.

The senior member of the firm of John G. White & Sons, maltsters, 125 Hudson avenue, has been engaged in this business for over 60 years, as in 1823, he, with his brother William, first began the industry in this city. The business has enlarged until they have plants in New York, Philadelphia, and in Bath, opposite Albany. Their malt-house here is seven stories in hight, brick, 150 by 70 feet, with an L 30 by 50 feet, and an annual capacity of 450,000 bushels. The malthouse in New York is five stories, 200 by 80 feet, capacity 350,000 bushels; and at Philadelphia is six stories, 160 by 60 feet, with a capacity of 100,000 bushels. The business done by them is one of the largest in this country, and their trade extends throughout New York, Pennsylvania and New England. The members of the firm are John G. White and his son, Andrew G. White. Matthew White, another son, is manager of the house located in New York, and Mr. William Little, of the one in Philadelphia.

A leading representative of the malting trade of Albany is the house of J. W. Tillinghast, which was founded in 1850 by the late John Tweddle, the business coming into the possession of the present proprietor in 1870. Two plants are operated by Mr. Tillinghast, one located at No 105 Montgomery street, and the other on the corner of State and Lark streets. The former is a five-story structure, 195 by ico feet in dimensions, the latter is three stories high and covers an area of 74 by 140 feet, the two having an aggregate capacity for the production of about 300,000 bushels of malt annually. The equipment of these malthouses embraces all the latest improved machinery and appliances known to the trade, operated by steam, employment being furnished to about thirty skilled workmen.

Thomas McCredie, maltster, 34 Clinton avenue, began his business in barley malting in 1847. His productions have grown from a few hundred bushels annually, to 250,000 bushels, the present output. His four establishments are as follows: first, on Canal, Orange and Hawk street, size 200 by 50 feet, six stories, brick; second, on Clinton avenue, 50 x 200 feet, three stories; third, on Central avenue, Robin and Bradford streets, two stories, 65 x 100 feet; and the last, on North Pearl street, three stories, 50 x 140 feet. Twenty-five workmen are employed.

The house of Messrs. Story Brothers was founded in 1868. The present proprietors are J. T., William and R. R. Story. The firm has two malt-houses, one on Broadway and Cherry street, which is four-stories high, 140 x 70 feet, with a twostory addition, 35 x 35 feet; the other on Broadway and Plum street, which is two-stories high, l37 x 45 feet- The storage warehouse is four stories, 137 x 35 feet in dimensions. The annual product is 175,000 bushels. Fifteen workmen are employed.

William Kirk, son of Andrew Kirk, one of the earlier maltsters in Albany, is the proprietor of a malt-house, 3 Kirk place.

WILLIAM APPLETON.

The life of William Appleton, of Albany, was an eminently successful one, both from a moral and a financial point of view. He was born in 1811 at Goodmanham, Yorkshire, England, and died in Albany, February 11, 1883. His father and mother, springing from influential families, occupied the farm which for generations back had been in his mother's family. The town of Goodmanham is one of the oldest in England, and contains many quaint and interesting buildings, among which is a small church constructed out of what originally was a heathen temple, erected in the year 627. The house in which he was born was a large, fine structure of graystone, with solid beams and doors of oak, and windows of horn. Though very old, it still stands, an example of the substantial manner in which such structures were built in those days. Mr. Appleton was unfortunate in losing his parents before his boyhood had passed. Upon the death of his mother he fell heir to quite a large landed estate. At this time he was a mere lad, and those whom the law had placed over him to control his property conspired to deprive him of it. How well they succeeded appears from the fact, that before he had attained his majority it had all been taken from him, and involved in such a manner that it was impossible for him to regain it. Still this did not crush and dishearten him, as it would have done many, but served rather to kindle the talent, energies and personalities which were to characterize him in his after life. After having lost his heritage, anticipating the fruitlessness of any efforts that he might make to regain it, he resolved to cast his lot in America, where he fancied he could more successfully lay the foundation and rear the superstructure of his after-life. Accordingly, in 1832, he left his native soil and came directly to Albany, where he determined to make his future home. He commenced business as a grain merchant on Washington street, and soon became widely known throughout the States as being one of the best judges of grain in the country. He was very successful, and his advice was sought by merchants from far and near. Soon he determined to extend his interests, and in 1847 entered the malting business, which proved so remunerative that he erected a large malt-house on Washington street, near the place where he had begun his business career. Still later he formed a partnership in New York City, and there carried on the largest business in oats done in the metropolis. He was also the proprietor of a line of barges plying on the Hudson between Albany and New York.

Mr. Appleton acquired a large amount of landed property, and, at the time of his death, was one of the largest real estate owners in Albany. He was a

member of the Boards of Trade of Albany and New York, and was connected as trustee and director with a number of banks and other corporations. He was a man of strong convictions and a decided individuality, which in no small degree contributed to his successful career. His life, though quiet and retiring, was full of good deeds. He was, in an unostentatious way, one of the most benevolent of men, and many poor people of Albany, to whom his death brought sadness, can testify to his kindness and liberality. Highly esteemed by all who knew him, he was one of the most welcome of friends and companions; and his extensive knowledge of a wide range of subjects made him very interesting in conversation. He was a model husband and father, and with his family he was exceptionally liberal and painstaking. His home was the place of all places where he loved to spend his time, and upon it he lavished care and expense without stint.

Mr. Appleton was married in 1844 to Mi>s Jerusha, daughter of Luther Frisbee. Eight chilren were the fruits of their marriage, five of whom have died. The remaining three are Mrs. Clement H. Warren, Mrs. Clifford D. Gregory and William Appleton, jr. The latter is since deceased.

Herewith is given as complete a list of brewers, maltsters, and distillers, with the year in which they commenced, as we are able to obtain. (Abbreviations.—B., Brewer; M., Maltster; D., Distiller.)

1816. —McLeish & Birrell, B., 38 North Pearl street; Henry G. Webb, M., Schenectady Turnpike.

1817. —Jacob Cole, B., 168 Washington street; Joseph Ketcham, B., 206 North Market street; Hathorn McCulloch, B. (partner of Robert Boyd), Ferry street; William Wake, B., Schenectady Turnpike; Abraham Slawson, M., 214 North Market street; Daniel Hale, Jr., D,, 82 North Market street; David Lent, D., 93 Washington street; Charles P. Poinier, cordial, 254 Washington street.

1825.—Boyd & McCulloch, B. (1819 to 1825); Henry Birrell, B., North Market; Fiddler & Taylor, B., 51 Hamilton street; John Gardner, B.; Stephen Humphries, B., 236 North Market street; Peter Snyder, B., Schuyler street; Charles Fields, M.; Christopher Robertson, M., 85 Orange street; James Oliver, cordial distiller and rum coloring, South Market street.

1830.—William Amsdell, B. (father of Amsdell Brothers), 14 Rose street; Patrick Connelly, B., 52 Church street; Robert Dunlap, B., 208 North Market street; John Gardner, B., Montgomery street; Reuben Pearl, B., Franklin street; Sinclair & Walsh, B., South Market and Hudson streets; John Taylor, B.; John & George Birdsall, M.; James Cahall, M., South Lansing street; T. Mounsey, M., Washington and Western Turnpike; Adam Dows, D., Water street; J. Root, rectifier, 36 Dean street.

1840.—Baker & Pruyn, B., 9 Dean street; Howard & Ryckman, B., 210 South Market street;

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